ASEAN JOURNAL OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING e-ISSN: 2232-0814 The ASEAN Journal of Open and Distance Learning (AJODL) is a bi-annual, open access and peer-reviewed online journal dedicated to the promotion of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) and ASEAN. AJODL is designed to support sharing of knowledge, experience, research efforts and findings pertaining to ODL and ASEAN. The journal is indexed under the ASEAN Citation Index (ACI), Malaysian Citation Index (MCI) and Thai-Journal Citation Index (TCI). It is a platform where researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners and students share and develop their work in order to improve the quality of ODL research in the ASEAN region. The journal is published online every June and December. It features research findings and theoretical discussions on a wide range of ODL-related subjects such as e-learning, mobile learning, information and communication technology for ODL, learning management system, ODL pedagogy, instructional design, content development, innovative teaching, learning strategies, assessment, learning behaviour, cognitive science, lifelong learning, quality management, best practices, education policies, ASEAN studies, leadership and other areas. AJODL welcomes papers from all interested authors. The papers can be submitted throughout the year. Please visit the following link to register and upload your formatted article. http://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/AJODL The manuscript submitted must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication in any other format elsewhere. For more information, please refer to the journal's Submission Guidelines.